2006 Vol. 27, No. supp

Development and prospect of optical metrology for national defense
WANG Xiao-peng
2006, 27(supp): 1-5.
The establishment and development of Primarystandard Optical Metrology Lab for National Defense are introduced. The importance of optical metrology in national defense is stressed. The progress and achievement acquired in establishing military and national standards, the practical work conducted in metrology and calibration, and the metrology service provided in the process of development, production, test and application of military equipments in the past two decades are described. According to the principle of priority to tasks and research projects, and proceeding from the actual needs of optoelectronic testing, the experts who can take on the research projects and management were employed and trained. The focal points of the future work under the new situation are emphasized.
Development and metrological service for weapon systems
WANG Xiu-yuan
2006, 27(supp): 6-9.
Metrology management is the important technology base of the quality management system for the weaponry development. Metrology is a effective means to control quality and quality is the aim of the metrology. Safeguard function of the metrology on development of weapon systems are mainly embodied in two aspects:one is to supply metrology service for development of weapon systems, the other is to develop the universal calibration and measurement facility for weapon systems. The significant function and status of metrology service for calibrating the optical systems in weapon systems and for developing the national toplevel standards are expounded. The requirement for optical metrology that is associated with arm model development during “eleventh fiveyearprogram” is brought forward in this paper.The aim and orientation of metrology service and its management for optical systems in weapon equipments are proposed.
Ultraviolet metrology technology in moonexploration project
YANG Zhao-jin, WANG Fang, LI Qi
2006, 27(supp): 10-13.
Moonexploration project is one of the main projects during the periods “tenth fiveyearprogram” and “eleventh fiveyearprogram” in china. Optical technology and optical metrology technology have played an important role in the moonexploration project. Ultraviolet technology and ultraviolet metrology are attached more and more importance in national defense industry system and the moonexploration project. The role played by optical technology and optical metrology in the moonexploration, and the work done by Optical Metrology Laboratory of XI′AN Institute of Applied Optics are deseribed in this paper. The content of ultraviolet metrology is defined. The work in ultraviolet metrology that has been done and will be done are presented.
Demand on optical metrology test for the novelhighenergy laser weapons
YANG Hong-ru, LI Gao-ping
2006, 27(supp): 14-19.
The present state and future development trends for the novel highenergy laser weapons are reviewed in this paper. The requirement and challenge for the technology of the optical metrology test for the devdopment of highenergy laser weapons are discussed. The chemical lasers, solidstate lasers, and optical fiber lasers, as the core of high energy laser weapons, are introduced in more detail. It is pointed out that the optical metrology test must meet the needs on the research and development of highenergy laser weapon systems, the further research on the mechanism of interaction of a laser with target materials should be taken, and a system for accurately orienting, aiming and tracking the target is still needed.
Strenghen metrology research managementand improve project development quality
WANG Fang, LI Qi
2006, 27(supp): 20-22.
Aiming at the characteristic of optical metrology research projects and combining it with the management experience, set up a perfect scientific research projectmanagement system, according to the scientific research project management method of National Defense Science Industry Committee and the relative management method of Xi'An Institute of Applied Optics. In the course of managing metrology scientific research projects, the scientific research project management work was carried out around the planning management of scientific research project.
Infrared Technology
Mobile multifunction optoelectronic testing system
GAO Jiao-bo, QU Wei-dong, SUN Ke-feng, XUE Jian-guo, HU yu, LI Jian-jun, WANG Ji-long, CHEN Qing, Wang Jun
2006, 27(supp): 23-27.
Since the test and evaluation methods now available are not adequate for fully assessing the performance of optoelectronic sensors installed on the weapon system platforms, the principle,constitution,function and qualification of the field mobile multifunction optoelectronic testing target are introduced in the paper. The 1.5m×1.5m target is composed of a 7×7 lattice thermal target, a laser diffuse reflection target with wide spectrum and 5 laser detectors with multiorientation and multiwaveband. Applicable laser wavelength ranges is 1.06μm~10.6μm, and the responding time is less than 1ns. The thermotarget pattern, temperature setting, azimuth and pitching of the target are controlled by a PC system. The updown height of the target can be controlled at 2m~8m. If the whole system is mounted on a plain trailer of 3m×5m, it can be used for the performance testing and simulation training of the optoelectronic countermeasure.
Calibration facility of infrared imaging systems
HU Tie-li, HAN Jun, ZHENG Ke-zhe, XUE Zhan-li, LI Xu-dong
2006, 27(supp): 28-32.
Aiming at the technical problems appearing in the field of infrared metrology, that is, how to build up a testing facility to calibrate infrared imaging systems and to trace back to the quantity value, a calibration facility of the testing subsystems in infrared imaging systems to measure the differential temperature transmittance with a precision temperature measurement scanning radiometer was achieved. Proceeding from the differential temperature and its transfer ratio, the model of differential temperature transfer ratio produced by blackbody and highresolution target is analyzed. The complexity of the model resulted from two largearea blackbodies is introduced. The effect of temperature difference transmittance of the testing system for infrared imaging systems on SiTF,MRTD and MDTD of infrared imaging systems is pointed out in this paper. The scientificalness of the scheme for the calibration of the testing facility is verified.
Analysis and design of mediumtemperature blackbody radiation source
YAN Xiao-yu, YUE Wen-long, WANG Xue-xin, FU Jian-ming
2006, 27(supp): 33-36.
Based on the analysis of the radiation cavity, temperature field uniformity and temperature stability of mediumtemperature blackbody radiation source, the design principle of mediumtemperature blackbody is discussed. With the calculation result of the effective emissivity was taken as the design criterion of cavity, with the obvious effects of the cavity shape and material selection/processing on the improvement of the effective emissivity were considered, and with much count of the heating mode and temperature control algorithm which directly determines the temperature field uniformity and temperature stability was taken, the economical and practical design model of mediumtemperature blackbody radiation source is obtained then. Mediumtemperature blackbody radiation source is developed based on this model. The verified results show that temperature stability reaches to ±0.2℃/h, effective emissivity is 0.99, and temperature field uniformity is 3℃ in the region from cavity bottom to the point at one third of cavity length.
Laser Technology
Study on effect of heat loss on energy measurement result of CW high energy laser
LI Gao-ping, YU Shuai, YANG Hong-ru, YANG Bin, WANG Lei
2006, 27(supp): 37-40.
The energy measurement result of CW highenergy laser, acquired by the calorimetric method and traditional data processing method, is influenced greatly by the heat loss as the laser pulse duration can be up to 30s. The effect of heat loss (including heat radiation, thermal conduction and heat transfer) on energy measurement result of CW high energy laser is studied in this paper. An experiment setup and the mathematical model of timetemperature relation were built up,and the correctness of the mathematical model were verified by experiments. The temperature rising curve of the taper energy absorbing cavity according to the relative expression with a corresponding data processing model has been gained. Based on the mathematical model, the measurement result is fitted with the least square method and the fitted curve tallies with the practical curve quite well. The measurement result was corrected by the data processing model. The energy measurement result shows that the measurement uncertainty is within 1%.
Research on metrology method for laser power and energy
WANG Lei, LI Gao-ping, YANG Zhao-jin, YANG Hong-ru, LIANG Yan-xi
2006, 27(supp): 41-46.
The precision metrology for laser power and energy is exactly important to the development of laser technology, but different kinds of lasers have different methods for their output measurement. The history of laser output measurement is reviewed in the paper. Measurement methods and equipments for assessment of laser power and energy are introduced to solve the measurement problems of laser power and energy. The working principle and the scope of application of methods in available metrology standards for highprecision metrology of the laser power and energy are presented. Development trend for laser output metrology is given in the end.
Evaluation of uncertainty measurement for laser energy meter
SHI Ji-fang, SONG Yi-bing, JI Xiao
2006, 27(supp): 47-50.
Laser energy is one of the basic parameters of laser radiation and a key parameter for the evaluation of the laser source, so the calibration result of the laser energy meter has a direct relationship to the accuracy of the laser energy measurement. A factor which effect the verification result is find out through the procedure analyses of calibration of the laser energy meter. By analyses of measuring the source of uncertainty with the laser energy meter and directreading laser energy meter which were used as standard measurement devices, a mathematical model of uncertainty of measurement was built up. Two evaluation methods (Type A and Type B) of uncertainty of measurement are presented in this paper. The uncertainty of the calibration results is evaluated. The methods of calculation and expression for the uncertainty of calibration results are given.
Study on measurement method of laser beam quality parameter
JI Xiao, YANG Hongru, LIU Guorong
2006, 27(supp): 51-54.
Laser beam quality is an important technical specification, which consists of parameters of beam mode, centroid, beam width and beam divergence angle and etc. The working principle of laser beam quality analyzer and two methods (secondorder quadrature and knifeedge method) for beam width measurement common used nowdays are presented. The beam quality of low level laser was measured with the two methods. The maximum and minimum width average values are 2.55E+0.3μm and 1.50E+03μm, the maximum and minimum divergences are 2.13mrad and 1.25mrad measured by the secondorder quadratare method; the maximum and minimum width average values are 2.43E+03μm and 1.48E+03μm, the maximum and minimum divergence are 2.03mrad and 1.24mrad measured by knifeedge method.The variation of centroid at x and y directions are 0.03mm and 0.01mm measured by the secondorder quadrature method,and the variation of centroid at x and y direction are 0.02mm and 0.00mm measured by knifeedge method.The results show that the variation of the light spot centroid is ver small.The value of M2factor is 2.53, larger than 1, not Gauss so laser bean is idea fundamental mode.
A novel laser source for target simulation
NAN Yao, JIA Xuan-jun, XIANG Shi-ming, YU Shuai, KONG Jun, SANG Peng, YANG Ye-ping, JI Xiao, YANG Zhao-jin
2006, 27(supp): 55-57.
The situation and the problems of the laser source used nowadays for measuring the performance of laser receivers are presented, and a novel laser source for target simulation based on a bunch of singlemode fibers which produces a laser field transmitted in Gauss distribution with settled divergence is proposed. The problems of uniformity and small divergence for reconstructing the light field distribution of target simulating laser under the condition of micro peak power density was solved with this method theoretically. The testing result of the target simulation laser consists with the actual working wavelength and width of the receiving system. The detection system developed by us has been used for quality control of laser range finders.
Imaging Optics
Elimination method of adjustment error in measurement of aspheric optical elements
YANG Peng-li
2006, 27(supp): 58-60.
The aberration of aspherical optical systems were measured, analyzed and calculated with Zygo universal laser interferometer, and the adjustment error coursed by adjustment imperfectness of aspherical optical systems was confirmed, so as to solve the problems appearing during the measurement process of aspherical optical elements. The adjusting direction and magnitude in assembly and adjustment process were calculated with a method of optimization design based on the relationship between the aberration and assembling errors, and then the aspherical optical systems were adjusted with the method. The experimental results show that the repeatability of the method is ideal. The typical adjustment accuracy of this method is 1/10 of the wavelength.
Transmittance measurement for IR optical systems
YANG Hong, WANG Jian-gang, JIANG Chang-lu, ZHAO Bao-zhen
2006, 27(supp): 61-64.
The relation of transmittance versus irradiance and numerical aperture (NA) of optical systems is discussed in this paper. Some methods of measuring the transmittance of IR optical systems are introduced, such as the method of integrating sphere, method of broadarea uniformity source, method of full aperture transmittance measurement and method of dual beam paths. The differences between theory and realizability of the above mentioned methods are also put forward. The measurement setup based on the method of broadarea uniformity source is regarded as the one which can measure the transmittance quickly, accurately and reliably, and can achieve a satisfactory effect by comparison with all the methods for transmittance measurement. The IR standard transmittance board was measured by the method of broadarea uniformity source, and two sets of experiment data were obtained. The uncertainty of the instrument which adopts the method of broadarea uniformity source is analyzed. The result indicates that the value of uncertainty is 2.6%.
Testing technology for aspheric wavefront aberration
WANG Sheng-yun, ZHENG Xue, ZHANG Mei
2006, 27(supp): 65-67.
The principle and system of aspheric wavefront aberration measurement are introduced. The cylindrical wavefront aberration measurement was realized mainly by GPIHS interferometer with the phaseshift interferometry. The cylindrical standard mirror was calibrated by the aid of the absolute testing method. A standard accessorial reflecting mirror was incorporated into the beam path of an interferometer to build up a autocollimating system for measuring the aspheric wavefront aberration of paraboloidal, ellipsoidal and hyperbolic mirrors with the method of aberrationless point. This method will have the characteristics of higher precision, bigger datainformation capacity, larger measurement range, and can remove system error and adjustment error if it is combined with the phaseshift interference principle.
Night Vision
Study of spectral responsivity testing technologyfor photocathodes of image intensifiers
SHI Ji-fang, HOU Xi-qi, FAN Ji-hong, SUN Yu-nan
2006, 27(supp): 68-70.
The working principle of the image intensifier is analyzed since it has not only the special property of optoelectronic imaging but also the characteristic of spectral conversion. A new method, which takes a cavity pyroelectric detector as a reference detector to measure the spectral responsivity of photocathodes in image intensifiers, is proposed. The measurement principle of the photocathode spectral responsivity for image intensifiers is described. The calibration of allwave absolute spectral responsivity of photocathodes in image intensifiers was realized by means of the calibration of the absolute spectral responsivity at 632.8nm for a silicon photocathode by using the cryogenic radiometer of the radiation standard and the trap detector of radiation transfer standard. The highprecision and broadband instrument designed for measuring the spectral responsivity of photocathodes in image intensifiers is of benefit to the development and fabrication of photocathodes in image intensifiers.
Research on measurement of spectral radiance luminance base on hightemperature blackbody
ZHAN Chun-lian, LIU Jian-ping, LI Zheng-qi, , LU Fei, CHEN Chao
2006, 27(supp): 71-75.
A method to measure the spectral radiance luminance is introduced. The spectral radiance luminance at the exit of a largediameter hightemperature blackbody was reconstructed with the method based on a hightemperature blackbody. At the same time, the acquired magnitude of the spectral radiance luminance for the standard lamp is transferred by the aid of the relative method. It is found that the acquired magnitude has lower measurement uncertainty. The measurement results are presented in this paper. BB3200K hightemperature blackbody and its measurement system are briefly introduced. The higher stability and satisfactory measuring result were obtained with the system into which an optical feedback system and an accurate temperaturemeasurement system were incorporated.
hotometric scale of high accuracy spectrophotometercalibrated with doubleaperture method
HOU Xi-qi, QIN Yan, LI Yan, WU Xian-xiang
2006, 27(supp): 76-78.
Since the systematic nonlinear error is the primary factor that influences the photometric precision of spectrophotometer and the common methods such as chemistry standard method and neutral density filter method for calibrating the photometric scale of a spectrophotometer can not meet the needs for calibrating the photometric scale of high precision spectrophotometers which require the uncertainty of photometric scale to be less than 0.001 (but the common methods is confined to 0.005), the doubleaperture method is brought forward in this paper. The measurement principle of the doubleaperture method for calibrating photometric scale of spectrophotometers and the way for calibrating Lambda 950 Spectrophotometer are introduced in details. The nonlinear parameters of Lambda 950 Spectrophotometer were obtained with the method. The nonlinear error was derived for the instruments working in 250nm~2500nm. The accuracy of photometric scale, preceding 0.0005, was acquired after calibration with the parameters.
Research of test technology for absolute spectral responsivity of HgCdTe detector
FAN Ji-hong, YANG Zhao-jin, QIN Yan
2006, 27(supp): 79-82.
The spectral responsivity is one of the important parameters of detector. With the development of infrared detection technique, the requirement for infrared detectors becomes higher, so it is necessary to calibrate the absolute spectral responsivity of infrared detectors accurately. The technology to precisely measure the absolute spectral responsivity of HgCdTe detector is investigated. The repeated measurement and calibration for the spectral responsivity of HgCdTe detector were fulfilled by aid of the selfcalibration technology for the relative spectral responsivity of the cavity pyroelectric detector. The average value of the measurement results is given in this paper. The quantity transmission of the absolute spectral responsivity of HgCdTe detector was conducted with the silicon detector calibrated by a cryogenic radiometer. Therefore, the calibration for the absolute spectral responsivity of HgCdTe detector in the fullwave band was realized. At last, the evaluation criterion of the uncertainty, which influences the measurement results, is presented.
Analysis of color reproduction in color measurement
LI Hong-guang, WU Bao-ning, YU Bing, CAO Feng
2006, 27(supp): 83-86.
color reconstruction; Munsell color system; color display
Optical Design
Optical design of image analyzer for infrared OTF testing equipment
JIAO Ming-yin, KANG Wen-li, YANG Hong
2006, 27(supp): 87-89.
The qualification and function of image analyzer are analyzed, and the design process and results of optical system for the image analyzer in 8μm~12μm waveband OTF testing equipment are expounded according to the principle of the digital Fourier transfer analysis method for measuring the OTF. The scheme of the collimated beam path was adopted in this design, in which a catadioptric mirror was introduced into the beam path for compact system construction and for putting the filter in the parallel beam path to eliminate the transmissivity deviation coursed by the different incident angles and the effect of optical path difference introduced by different filters on the image plane location. The object NA of the system is 0.85. The perpendicular axis magnification ratio is 1.5× and the maximum aperture is Φ25mm. The system is verified by the experiments.
Optoelectronic Engineering
tudy of quantitative evaluation technology by using digitization Foucault tester
YANG Bin, WANG Lei, LI Gao-ping, XIN Zhou
2006, 27(supp): 90-92.
Based on the traditional Foucault tester, a quantitative evaluation method that improves the tester by digitized technology is proposed. Under the control of PC,knifeedge cuts the image point along XY plane by a fixed step size. A series of shadow patterns are captured through CCD in real time. Proceeding from the theory of geometric optics,the shadow patterns captured from Xaxis slices and Yaxis slices are analyzed and processed, the slope information of optical element surface is obtained, and the RMS and PV values of wavefront aberration for the optical element under test are calculated. In this way,the quantitative evaluation to the optical element surface is performed. The system configuration, principle and measurement process are described in the paper.
ethod for investigation of extinction properties of light in seawater
LI Xu-dong, YANG Hong-ru, WU Lei, QING Yan
2006, 27(supp): 93-96.
Investigations on the extinction properties of light in seawater has farreaching significance in the field of underwater detection. Proceeding from the analysis of absorption and scattering properties of light in seawater, the extinction properties of inorganic salt solution, suspend particles and yellow material are emphatically discussed. It is shown that the main factors of the absorption of light in seawater are pure water, plankton and yellow material. The inorganic compounds mainly account for the scattering effect. The spectrum extinction properties of different seawaters are measured by spectrophotometer. In comparison with the pure water, among Hulu Island, Hainan Island and Lianyun Port, the extinction index of the seawater in Lianyun Port is biggest, and Hulu Island is weakest. Thus, inorganic salt solution, suspend particles and yellow material can be taken as the main components that affect the extinction properties of light in seawater.
Comparison between geometrical model and Debye model for large bubble scattering
WU Lei, YANG Hong-ru, LI Xu-dong
2006, 27(supp): 97-101.
Mie theory is a powerful tool for calculating the scattering properties of spherical bubbles, but it can not give much insight into the physical scattering process (such as reflection, refraction and diffraction) as the geometrical model and Debye model do. Calculation with the geometricaloptics theory or Debyeseries expansion of the Mie amplitude can help us to understand the physical scattering mechanisms. In this paper, the scattering patterns of large spherical bubbles in water are calculated by both geometricaloptics model and the Debye model. A detailed comparison between the geometricaloptics model and Debye model is presented. The analysis result shows that the result from the geometricaloptics approach agrees well with those obtained by Debyemodel for the perpendicular polarized component when the size of the bubbles becomes large enough. However, there is large variance between the two calculations in the scattering region of 45°~90° for the parallel polarized component.
Research on CPLD application in color measuring spectrophotometer
YU Bing, WU Bao-ning, LI Hong-guang, CAO Feng
2006, 27(supp): 102-104.
A method of spectral color analysis based on complex programmable logic device (CPLD) is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy of the colour measuring instruments and make the application rapid and convenient. The system control and color parameter calculation were accomplished, and the I/O control for the equipments was realized by utilizing CPLD and insetsingle chip to drive the CCD and to process the signal. By the aid of selfadaptive control theory, the problem that the CCD dynamic range was too narrow under the condition of single integration time was solved with the integration time adjustment for CCD by CPLD. The CCD effective data needed by calculation were reduced significantly through A/D intermittence sampling, data storage and invoking controlled by CPLD.