2005 Vol. 26, No. 6

Design and realization of reconnaissance network system for individual soldier
YE Jie-song, ZHU Yue-chao, CHEN Zhi-ping
2005, 26(6): 1-3.
Generally speaking, the traditional reconnaissance includes four basic courses: selection of observation post, occupation of observation post, reconnaissance preparation and operation. The reaction speed and striking efficacy is demanded in modern war under the hightech condition. As far as the post reconnaissance, some important breakthroughs in traditional observation must be made, and the digitization, automation, network and integrated reconnaissance systems for individual soldiers must be set up to raise high efficiency, flexibility and survivability of observation posts. In order to realize this, some traditional technology must be abandoned, new technology must be extensively adopted and the individual reconnaissance systems must be developed for the future war. On the basis of the computer, sensor, GPS,GIS and wireless digitization transmission technology, a new reconnaissance project is brought forward, which can be used in the future battlefield.
Image Processing
Data fusion technique for video information processing of dual-channel
LI Xiang-jun
2005, 26(6): 4-7.
Wavehopping antiship missiles such as “Exocet MM38”, etc. are serious threats to heavy surface vessels, and the shipborne closein weapons system is the “last chance” defense against the antiship missiles. Therefore, as for the interception of the wavehopping antiship missiles, the accurate, stable and automatic target tracking is one of the key technologies for the system. The constitution of the dualchannel video processor, which is adapted to tracing the wavehopping highspeed missiles automatically, is presented in this paper. Some technologies of the processor, such as operation principle, noise suppression preprocessing, image segmentation, signature extraction, recognition and position detection, are briefly introduced. And the central part (the resource utilization and the data fusion processing of the dualchannel video information) is discussed in detail. The dualchannel parallel processing data fusion was applied firstly at home to the optoelectronic tracking instruments of shipborne closein weapons systems, and a satisfactory tracking effect was achieved in the demonstration test on the sea.
Realization of 2D image signal acquisition with DSP-based linear array CCD
TIAN Yan-tao, CHANG Dan-hua, PAN Pu-feng, ZHANG Yan
2005, 26(6): 8-11.
The opticaltoelectrical conversion systems, especially the postprocessing for the acquisition signal are investigated. The process of CCD signal acquisition and processing realized by a certain DSPbased hardware during the optoelectronic data acquisition processing is introduced. The differential algorithm for edge recognition of CCD signal and the algorithm for combining the linear array CCD signals to restore the 2D image signals are given. And the detailed hardware processing circuit is provided. The data transmission between DSP and FIFO, and the interface circuit between DSP and USB are emphatically introduced. The problem of the 2D image signal restoration, which is impossible for the system to solve with ordinary technology, was solved with this technology. Finally, the validity of the method is proved by the experiments. Since the linear array CCD signal is stored in the form of several lines, the method is especially suitable for image acquisition system of laser carver.
Threedimensional photograph of more objects by nesting ellipse path
WU Yun-wen, ZHOU Xiao-qing
2005, 26(6): 12-14.
A way to form the threedimensional photograph of more objects by nesting of big and small ellipse path is introduced according to the character of ellipse and constraint conditions of experimentation. The holographic recording for more objects can be realized with this method by the aid of a holographic recording system in our laboratory. It can avoid the complex work for repeatedly adjusting the reference beam and the object beam to the equal opticalpath length during the experiment. Several objects appearing in the same space at the same time or the information from different viewing angles of one object were recorded in one hologram. The threedimensional hologram was got in such a way.
Optical Design
Automatic inspect system of angle between axes based on machine vision
DANG Li-ping, ZHOU Li-hua, BAI Bo
2005, 26(6): 15-18.
In the manufacture and application of the complicated controlling, launching, tracking systems, the angular error caused by the deviation of mounting position of subsystems or assemblies in a whole system will influence the controlling, tracking and launching accuracy or other measurement results, so the error must be measured and corrected. It is very important to control the position error.A new method for measuring the boresight error between optical axes based on facular center located with vision image is presented. A machine vision angle metering system based on LABVIEW ( a virtual instrument platform ) was also constructed. It was used to align some axes (e.g.axis of launch, axis of targeting, axis of laser designator, etc.) in a large weapon system, and a satisfactory test result was got.
Theoretical Study
Performance research of spectrum encoding OCDMA system
ZHOU Xiu-li, HU Yu, TAN Qing-gui, WAN Sheng-peng
2005, 26(6): 19-22.
In order to improve the relatively poor orthogonality and capacity for more users in OCDMA system, which uses the single polarity code, the differential check scheme on the receiver side of the spectrum encoding OCDMA system with the bipolarity codes is studied. The condition, which should be met by the address code used for the differential spectrum amplitude encoding scheme, is discussed. The bit error rate of the OOK and the bipolarity encoding scheme is analyzed with chirp and JohnsonNyquist noise taken into account. Through the numerical calculation, the performance comparison between one system (that both “one” and “zero”represent the signals) and another system (that only “one” represents the signals) was made. The results show that the scheme of the bipolarity address code and the higher laser power can improve the system performance.
Experimental investigation of acoustooptic effect
LI Ming, LI Guan-cheng
2005, 26(6): 23-27.
The new theoretic development on acoustooptic interaction is introduced. Adopting the tentation of raster,the acoustooptic interaction in isotropic medium is discussed, and the formula of diffractive efficiency for the diffractive beam is deduced. A new experiment equipment on acoustooptic interaction is developed. By means of a linear array CCD lightintensity distribution measuring system, via the variation of the frequency and the power of ultrasonic wave, the direction control and the intensity modulation for the laser beam can be carried out. The relation curve between acoustooptic deflexion and modulation measurement is given. The experimental result shows that as the power of ultrasonic wave is fixed, and the relation curve of the diffractive lightintensity relative to zeroorder diffractive light and ultrasonic frequency is measured, not only the sound velocity can be calculated,but also the bandwidth and the centric frequency of an acoustooptic element can be confirmed under Bragg diffraction.
Principle and design of a test system for pesticide fluorescence lifetime
WANG Zhong-dong, WANG Yu-tian
2005, 26(6): 28-31.
The generation of fluorescence,the mechanism of fluorescence lifetime and the basic measuring principle for fluorescence lifetime are introduced. A test system for fluorescence lifetimes of pesticides is designed by means of the direct record method(the Photon Counting Technique). According to the natures of the samples under test, a corresponding pulsed light source, optical elements, a semiconducting detector, etc. were chosen. All the working parameters such as the pulsed period of the excitation light source were reasonably optimized, a simple modular design was employed, the fluorescence lifetime of carbaryl solution was measured without the interference of the excitation light, and the fluorescence decay curves and the lifetime of 300~400ps (FWHM) were obtained as the concentration of the carbaryl solution is 500μg/L. The results indicate that the system has the virtues of the simplicity in structure and convenience to operate, and can measure lifetimes as short as the order of 100ps.It is suitable for the quantitative measurement fluorescence lifetime of pesticides which can emit fluorescence.
Effect of post treatment on planar optical waveguide of ionexchanged phosphate glass
ZHAO Shi-long, CHEN Bao-yu, HU Jun-jiang, HU Li-li
2005, 26(6): 32-34.
The effect of postprocessing (annealing and secondary ion exchange process) on the transmission characteristics of planar optical waveguide of a new Er3+/Yb3+codoped phosphate glass was investigated. Because of the redistribution of Ag+ ions under the annealing and difference of Ag+ ion concentration between glass waveguide surface and substrate, it is found that with the prolonging of annealing time and increasing of annealing temperature, the quantity of optical waveguide modes and the depth of waveguide are increased, and the difference of refractive index between surface and substrate are decreased. The annealing diffusion depth is in direct proportion to the square root of annealing time. The result of microprobe analysis indicates that buried optical waveguide was formed after the secondary ion exchange process, the profile was close to quadratic distribution and the buried waveguide contributes to the decrease of transmission loss of the optical waveguide.
Twodimension compatible magneticfield analysis based on ANSYS
LI Long-kui, SU Junhong, LIANG Hong-jun
2005, 26(6): 35-37.
The magneticfield distribution of nonbalance magnetron sputtering coating equipment has a serious effect on film coating. A method that with the finite element method solves for magneticfield generated by live coil in nonbalance magnetron sputtering coating equipment is introduced. Based on the theory of electromagneticfield, the calculation model of magneticfield generated by live coil had been deduced and with the ANSYS based on finite element method, the magneticfield distribution caused by the coil in nonbalance magnetron sputtering coating equipment was simulated. The reliability of calculation model and results were verified by comparison with practical measurement results. The magneticfield distribution of nonbalance magnetron sputtering coating equipment is summarized, and it provide reference for optimizing a design plan of coating and improving the quality of thin films.
Fiber Optics
Study of CH4 opticalfiber sensor structure
QIAN Xiang-zhong
2005, 26(6): 38-40.
The safety CH4 opticalfiber sensor is studied based on the optoelectronic measurement theory and wavelengthdivision multiplexer technology. By use of the CH4, the sensor of the system works in the harmonic absorption spectrum at 1.331μm. The system works in dualwavelength differential absorption mode and its reference wavelength is 1.27μm, so the effect of the dispersion and perturbation , except the light absorption, is eliminated. The resolution of the system has reached 0.001% and the realtime display has been realized by the data acquisition and processing with A/D/A conversion card controlled by the software. The system may not only be used to accurately measure CH4, but also to operate safely and reliably because of the application of the optical measurement. Therefore, the system can be used for any coal mine to measure the concentration of CH4 in remote supervisory control mode.
Lifetime prediction for the optical fiber in guidance optical cable
WANG Bao-zhu, DENG Hong-lin, LI Xiao-rui, ZHAN Yimin
2005, 26(6): 41-45.
The basic theory and methods about dynamic fatigue test and screen test are introduced. The fatigue experimentation for the optical fiber was made with these methods on an electronic material function test machine under the room temperature. The result proves that the lifetime of guidance optical fiber may exceed a decade when the strain is less than 850 g, and the values of the Weibull parameter (md) and the fatigue parameter (nd) have their effects on the fiber lifetime. The experiments indicate that the dynamic fatigue test model fits for the prediction of the guidance fiber lifetime and the screen test model is suited for the communication fiber lifetime because fibers’lifetime depends heavily on their applications. If long lifetime and reliability need to be obtained, the antifatigue factor nd must be increased and the stress of the fiber in cable must be reduced.
Design of practical circuit for reflective fiber displacement sensor in testing roller abradability
GUO Yuan, WANG Yu-tian, DAI Xue-feng
2005, 26(6): 46-48.
Based on the principle of reflective fiberoptic sensor, a method of online noncontact testing for roller abradability is proposed. The measurement of the reflective light intensity is utilized in the method. Also a practical circuit for reflective fiber displacement sensor in testing roller abradability is introduced emphatically. According to the characteristic and the accuracy requirement of the testing course for the roller abradability, the principle, the construction and the function of the sensor circuit are elaborated and analyzed. The theories and experiments show that the proposed circuit system is stable, both the accuracy and the sensitivity can meet the demand of the actual application. And the circuit also suits for other testing systems, in which the reflective fiber displacement transducers are used under the similar condition after a slight modification.
Principle, configuration, manufacture and potential application of photonic crystal fiber
LI Qi-cheng
2005, 26(6): 49-52.
The main reason that blocks traditional fiber to develop towards big capacity and long distance communication is the loss of light energy and dispersion, so the manufacture of photonic crystal fiber with lower loss and dispersion will be the direction of fiber development. Based on the introduction of the manufacture, principle and characteristics of photonic crystal fiber, and comparison with the common fiber, the characteristics of “endless” singlemode, strange dispersion, controllable nonlinear and more cores’ transmission of the photonic crystal fiber are investigated. The result shows that the photonic crystal fiber will have a broad application in photonic crystal fiber sensor,photonic crystal antennae, dispersion compensation and optical integrated circuit.
Laser Technology
Multi-window design for laser orientation measurement
CHENG Yu-bao, LI Qing, LIU Shang-qian
2005, 26(6): 53-56.
It is necessary to measure laser orientation in some applications such as laser reconnaissance and alarm. Based on the analysis of interference stripes of equal thickness generated by the parallel laser on optical wedge, the relation of the stripe spacing and laser incidence angle is obtained, and a model of determining the laser incidence direction is presented by means of the measurement of spaces between interference stripes on the adjacent three wedges, then the detecting principle of the model is demonstrated in detail. A multiwindow design for laser orientation detection is given, which is composed of nine optical wedges and can detect laser incidence angle in hemispheric space. The theoretical calculation shows that the design is feasible. The design has more advantages as compared with the existing ones in some aspects such as detection accuracy, reaction speed and system composition.
Research of the design method and some important concepts for spacetoground optical communication
2005, 26(6): 54-57.
Based on the introduction of the overall design considerations for the spacetoground optical communication link, the research on some important concepts, such as parameters’coordination in the design of communication link, effect of atmospheric channels on system design, design of communication subsystem, subsystem design of beam APT (acquisition, pointing and tracking) , optical system design and so on, involved in the design process,is discussed in this paper. All the work we did would help us to know the spacetoground optical communication very well and realize it ultimately.
Thin Film
Study on high performance infrared wideband ( 7~11.5μm)antireflective film on germanium substrate
PAN Yong-qiang, ZHU Chang, HANG Ling-xia
2005, 26(6): 63-65.
In order to enhance the transmission of germanium and mechanical feature of the antireflective film, the design and preparation of the high performance infrared wideband antireflective film deposited on germanium substrate by ionbeam assisted deposition are investigated. The selection of film material, the design of film systems and the process of the ionbeam assisted deposition for the film systems are introduced. The measured spectral curves of the antireflection film at 7~11.5μm, deposited by this method, are given. The experimental results show that the peak transmission of the film is more than 99.5%, the average transmission in the designed wavelength range is greater than 97.5%, the film adherency is good, the optical and mechanical properties are stable. These are critical for the application of infrared optical systems.
Testing Technology
Design of a miniature color measuring spectrophotometer
LI Hong-guang, WU Bao-ning, SHI Huan-fang, YUAN Liang, YU Bing, CAO Feng, YANG Feng
2005, 26(6): 66-69.
In order to solve the problems (slow rate and big volume) which the existing color measuring instruments are confronted with, a mathematical model for color measurement was established with the advanced optoelectronic spectrograph method for color measurement and an automatical spectrophotometer was designed. The system consists of illumination system, optoelectronic spectrograph, signal collecting and processing circuit, and color measuring software. The design of the illumination system and optoelectronic spectrograph are introduced in detail. Photoelectrical spectrograph device uses a flatfield concave grating as a beamsplitting device and the linear array CCD as detectors, thus, the volume of instrument was reduced. Seven standard color boards were measured with the spectrophotometer, and the result is that the measurement uncertainty of chromaticity coordinate is less than 0.01 and color measurement period is 1 s. These indicate that the instrument can meet the requirements of rate and accuracy in color measurement in industry.
Mathematical model and method for measurement of spectral irradiance
LIU Jian-ping, ZHANG Hui, ZHAN Chun-lian, LI Zheng-qi
2005, 26(6): 70-073.
Spectral irradiance, which is the most elementary parameter in spectral radiation metrology, is the important foundation on studying the characteristics of all kinds of radiating sources and optoelectronic detectors. In order to improve measurement precision and traceability of spectral irradiance quantity value, the optical metrology station uses BB3200K high temperature black body as a fiducial source and adopts the new method for measuring the radiation temperature. We derived the relation between radiation temperature and radiation power by making use of a series of radiation theories and geometry principle. The precision quantity value measurement of spectral irradiance is realized by absolute measurement of the radiation power by means of a cryogenic radiometer. The measurement results are shown in the paper. The theory laid the foundation for the new detectorbased quantitytransfer system. This paper mainly introduces the new measurement method and math model about measuring spectral irradiance. At the same time, the measurement device and measurement principle are introduced.
Study on optoelectronic measurement of UV radiation spectrum
GAN Ming, ZHOU Hui-li, YU Guo-cai, LU Tie-niu
2005, 26(6): 74-076.
In order to design the material, which can generate the ultraviolet spectrum and fit a certain requirement, and measure the ultraviolet spectrum better, a method that utilizes some atomic material and appropriate excitation source to generate the needed ultraviolet spectrum and then measures the ultraviolet spectrum with the ultraviolet sensor is proposed.This is very useful for study and application of ultraviolet guided missile countermeasure and jam. According to related theories, the ultraviolet spectrum of atomic materials, especially the electron energy transition around alkali metal atomic nucleus is analyzed and calculated, and the spectral line data is listed in this paper. The measurement principle of target ultraviolet spectrum is also introduced. After the excitation scheme of suitable ultraviolet material is selected, the ultraviolet spectrum is measured with the dualgrating monochromator and ultraviolet sensor.Finally, the experimental result and the curve diagram of measurement for ultraviolet radiation spectrum are given.
Opto-electronic Device
Fabrication of continuous relief mask for diffractive plane focus lens
WANG Duo-shu, LUO Chong-tai, LIU Hong-kai, MA Mian-jun, HUANG Liang-fu
2005, 26(6): 77-080.
The fabrication technology of continuous relief mask for diffractive plane focus lens is studied in the paper. According to Kirchhoff’s scalar diffraction theory, with the ray tracing method, a continuous relief mask for diffractive focus lens has been designed. Using the technology, some experiments on the writing of the mask were carried out with the help of CLWS300M/C. The results show that the laser energy, prebake temperature, developer concentration and preexposure will affect the microstructure of the mask.The mask was fabricated with such technology after a lot of efforts. Compared with the technology for binary optical mask, the technology has the following strong points: process simplification, short period of fabrication and easy operation.